Sources 1550-1559

Hastings family deeds (1100-1600)

John Harley of the Historical Manuscripts Commission was invited by Reginald Rawdon Hastings to examine his family's extensive archives at the Manor House, Ashby de la Zouche, in Leicestershire. Harley produced a detailed calendar, of which is the first volume, published in 1928, Hastings himself having since died, and Harley having been killed at Gallipoli. This volume covers four categories of the records: the Ancient Deeds; Manorial and other Documents; Accounts and Inventories; and Miscellaneous Papers. Most, but not all, of the material is mediaeval. About half of the deeds relate to the family property in Leicestershire; then there are sections for Derbyshire, Nottinghamshire, Northamptonshire, Lincolnshire, Warwickshire, Staffordshire, Yorkshire, Northumberland, Norfolk, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, London, Wiltshire, Somersetshire, Devonshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire, &c. The manorial section includes a partitions of the estates of the Earls of Leicester and Wilton about 1204 and 1277; manor court rolls are mentioned, but not extracted. Choicer items from the family accounts and inventories are copied in extenso for 1596 and 1607, and thereafter summarised. Most of the later material is merely dipped into for curiosities.
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Penshurst Manuscripts (1150-1580)

C. L. Kingsford prepared a calendar of the papers of Lord de L'Isle and Dudley at Penshurst Place in Kent for the Historical Manuscripts Commission, of which this first volume was published in 1925. The material is presented in eleven sections: I. 39 deeds relating to the Sydney family's Surrey and Sussex estates from about 1150 to 1502; II. Summary notes on deeds from these and other English counties (mainly Essex, Kent, Lincolnshire and Yorkshire) and from Wales and Ireland; III. Documents relating to Robertsbridge Abbey in Sussex (charters and deeds; rentals; court rolls; reeve's accounts at Footland; and bursar's accounts) from 1160 onwards; IV. Deeds and documents relating to the church and college of Tattershall in Lincolnshire (deeds; statutes and ordinances; miscellaneous papers; court rolls; and accounts (warden's, steward's, precentor's and impositor's, receiver's, bailiffs', and building and post-dissolution accounts); V. Family papers and estates accounts of the Cromwells of Tattershall (general accounts and wills; accounts of stewards of the household; building accounts of Tattershall castle; estate accounts); VI. Summary lists of various rolls, rentals, surveys and accounts, from various counties (mainly Kent and Lincolnshire); VII. Documents relating to Penshurst and its owners; VIII. Sydney family papers; IX. Accounts of the ironworks at Robertsbridge and in Glamorgan; X. Papers relating to the Council of Wales, 1526 to 1580; and XI. Irish Accounts, from sir Henry Sydney's terms as Vice-Treasurer and Lord Deputy of Ireland, 1556 to 1578.
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Tradesmen of York (1272-1558)

No man or woman could trade in the city of York without having obtained 'freedom' of the city.Their names were recorded on the 'Freemen's Roll', or Register of the Freemen of the City of York, which contains about 19,900 names for this period. A list of names was prepared for each year, the year being here reckoned as starting at Michaelmas (29 September) until 1373, and thence at Candlemas (2 February). Each annual list starts with the name of the mayor and the camerarii or chamberlains. The chamberlains were freemen charged with the duty of receiving the fees of the new freemen; of seeing that only freemen traded in the city; and of preparing this roll, which was compiled from the names on their own account books from the receipts for the fees. There are three groups of freemen: those who obtained freedom after serving out an apprenticeship to a freeman; the children of freemen; and those who claimed freedom by 'redemption', i. e. by purchase or gift from the Mayor and Court of Aldermen.
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Tradesmen of Lynn in Norfolk (1292-1836)

Lists of admissions of freemen of Lynn from the earliest surviving records to 1836 were published by the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society in 1913. These lists were extracted from the tallage rolls of 1291 to 1306; the Red Register of Lynn from 1342 to 1395; from the assembly rolls for the reigns of Henry IV and V [1399 to 1422]; from the hall books from 1423; and from a list of freemen starting in 1443 in the Book of Oaths (but itself abstracted from entries in the hall books). Freedom of the borough, necessary to practise a trade there, could be obtained by birth (in which case the father's name and occupation are usually given); by apprenticeship to a freeman (the master's name and occupation being given); by gratuity; or by purchase. Both the freemen and the masters listed are indexed here. The main abbreviations used are: B., freedom taken up by right of birth; A., freedom taken up by right of apprenticeship; G., freedom granted by order of assembly (gratuity); and P., freedom acquired by purchase.
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Inhabitants of Ripon (1354-1609)

In 1888 the Surtees Society published, as the 3rd volume of Memorials of the Church of SS Peter and Wilfrid, Ripon, a collection of extracts from a variety of sources relating to the minster - a copy of the appropriate section from the Valor Ecclesiasticus of 1535-6; chantry certificates of 1546-7; ministers' accounts of 1547-9; fabric rolls (giving accounts of expenditure on the buildings) from 1354 to 1542; a paper book of about 1520; treasurers' rolls from 1401 to 1485; chamberlains' rolls from 1410 to 1558; an inquisition of 1609 (from the Duchy of Lancaster archives); and extracts from the diocesan archives of 1567 to 1580. The people that appear in these records are not only the clergy, but also workmen maintaining and repairing the fabric, local tenants, and the names of the deceased whose obits incurred small payments to the church.
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Testators and legatees in London (1358-1688)

The Court of Husting of the city of London sat (usually on a Monday) each week: among its functions was the enrolment of deeds and wills relating to citizens of London. In their strictest technical sense the terms 'will' and 'devise' are appropriate to real estate, and the terms 'testament', 'bequest' and 'legacy' to personal estate, but this distinction is lost sight of in ordinary usage. This calendar of wills proved and enrolled in the Court of Husting was edited by Reginald R. Sharpe, records clerk in the office of the Town Clerk of the City of London, and printed by order of the corporation in 1890. The date of the court is given in italics, with the year in bold in the margin. The testator's name is given in capitals (surname first, in bold), and then a brief listing of substantial bequests, with the names of legatees, and then the date of making of the will, and reference. The bulk of the wills in this volume are from before 1600.
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Bury St Edmunds area testators and legatees (1370-1650)

A number of wills proved and registered in the courts of Bury St Edmunds Commisary and Sudbury Archdeaconry were selected by Samuel Tymms 'more with a view to illustrate the peculiar customs and language of the period than the topology or genealogy of the district' and transcribed for publication by the Camden Society in 1850. Most of those after 1450 are in English.
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Traders in Canterbury (1392-1592)

No man or woman could trade in the city of Canterbury without having obtained 'freedom' of the city, unless they paid an annual fee to do so. Admissions of freemen were recorded on the Chamberlains' Accounts of the city, which were prepared annually from Lady Day (25 March) to Lady Day until 1752, and thereafter each set runs from 1 January to 31 December. The accounts for 1392 are incomplete, but thereafter until 1800 there is a complete series except for the years 1455 to 1457 and the year 1552-3. Joseph Meadows Cowper, Honorary Librarian to the Corporation, transcribed and privately printed in 1904 the lists of the Intrantes - those persons, not being free of the city, who paid the annual fine to trade - for the period 1392 to 1592. The names are arranged by ward (Burgate, Newyngate, Westgate, Worgate and Northgate, and give full name, (sometimes) occupation, and fee paid.
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Freemen of Canterbury by Apprenticeship (1392-1800)

No man or woman could trade in the city of Canterbury without having obtained 'freedom' of the city, unless they paid an annual fee to do so. Admissions of freemen were recorded on the Chamberlains' Accounts of the city, which were prepared annually from Lady Day (25 March) to Lady Day until 1752, and thereafter each set runs from 1 January to 31 December. The accounts for 1392 are incomplete, but thereafter until 1800 there is a complete series except for the years 1455 to 1457 and the year 1552-3. Joseph Meadows Cowper, Honorary Librarian to the Corporation, produced this extract of the names from 1392 to 1800, and the volume was privately printed in 1903. There are five groups of freemen: those who obtained freedom after serving out an apprenticeship to a freeman; the children of freemen; those who married a freeman's daughter; those who claimed freedom by 'redemption', i. e. by purchase; and those who were honoured by a gift of the freedom from the Mayor and Court of Aldermen. Cowper published his lists divided into the five categories: the sample scan is from the list of those who obtained freedom by marriage. This is the index to those who gained their freedom by apprenticeship.
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Freemen of Canterbury by Birth (1392-1800)

No man or woman could trade in the city of Canterbury without having obtained 'freedom' of the city, unless they paid an annual fee to do so. Admissions of freemen were recorded on the Chamberlains' Accounts of the city, which were prepared annually from Lady Day (25 March) to Lady Day until 1752, and thereafter each set runs from 1 January to 31 December. The accounts for 1392 are incomplete, but thereafter until 1800 there is a complete series except for the years 1455 to 1457 and the year 1552-3. Joseph Meadows Cowper, Honorary Librarian to the Corporation, produced this extract of the names from 1392 to 1800, and the volume was privately printed in 1903. There are five groups of freemen: those who obtained freedom after serving out an apprenticeship to a freeman; the children of freemen; those who married a freeman's daughter; those who claimed freedom by 'redemption', i. e. by purchase; and those who were honoured by a gift of the freedom from the Mayor and Court of Aldermen. Cowper published his lists divided into the five categories: the sample scan is from the list of those who obtained freedom by marriage. This is the index to those who gained their freedom by birth.
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Wives and Masters of Freemen of Canterbury (1392-1800)

No man or woman could trade in the city of Canterbury without having obtained 'freedom' of the city, unless they paid an annual fee to do so. Admissions of freemen were recorded on the Chamberlains' Accounts of the city, which were prepared annually from Lady Day (25 March) to Lady Day until 1752, and thereafter each set runs from 1 January to 31 December. The accounts for 1392 are incomplete, but thereafter until 1800 there is a complete series except for the years 1455 to 1457 and the year 1552-3. Joseph Meadows Cowper, Honorary Librarian to the Corporation, produced this extract of the names from 1392 to 1800, and the volume was privately printed in 1903. There are five groups of freemen: those who obtained freedom after serving out an apprenticeship to a freeman; the children of freemen; those who married a freeman's daughter; those who claimed freedom by 'redemption', i. e. by purchase; and those who were honoured by a gift of the freedom from the Mayor and Court of Aldermen. Cowper published his lists divided into the five categories: the sample scan is from the list of those who obtained freedom by marriage. This is the index to all the stray names in the records: the wives and father-in-laws by whom freedom was acquired; the masters of apprentices; and other persons mentioned by the way in the record.
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Freemen of Canterbury by Gift (1392-1800)

No man or woman could trade in the city of Canterbury without having obtained 'freedom' of the city, unless they paid an annual fee to do so. Admissions of freemen were recorded on the Chamberlains' Accounts of the city, which were prepared annually from Lady Day (25 March) to Lady Day until 1752, and thereafter each set runs from 1 January to 31 December. The accounts for 1392 are incomplete, but thereafter until 1800 there is a complete series except for the years 1455 to 1457 and the year 1552-3. Joseph Meadows Cowper, Honorary Librarian to the Corporation, produced this extract of the names from 1392 to 1800, and the volume was privately printed in 1903. There are five groups of freemen: those who obtained freedom after serving out an apprenticeship to a freeman; the children of freemen; those who married a freeman's daughter; those who claimed freedom by 'redemption', i. e. by purchase; and those who were honoured by a gift of the freedom from the Mayor and Court of Aldermen. Cowper published his lists divided into the five categories: the sample scan is from the list of those who obtained freedom by marriage. This is the index to those who gained their freedom by gift.
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Freemen of Canterbury by Marriage (1392-1800)

No man or woman could trade in the city of Canterbury without having obtained 'freedom' of the city, unless they paid an annual fee to do so. Admissions of freemen were recorded on the Chamberlains' Accounts of the city, which were prepared annually from Lady Day (25 March) to Lady Day until 1752, and thereafter each set runs from 1 January to 31 December. The accounts for 1392 are incomplete, but thereafter until 1800 there is a complete series except for the years 1455 to 1457 and the year 1552-3. Joseph Meadows Cowper, Honorary Librarian to the Corporation, produced this extract of the names from 1392 to 1800, and the volume was privately printed in 1903. There are five groups of freemen: those who obtained freedom after serving out an apprenticeship to a freeman; the children of freemen; those who married a freeman's daughter; those who claimed freedom by 'redemption', i. e. by purchase; and those who were honoured by a gift of the freedom from the Mayor and Court of Aldermen. Cowper published his lists divided into the five categories: the sample scan is from the list of those who obtained freedom by marriage. This is the index to those who gained their freedom by marriage.
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Freemen of Canterbury by Redemption (1392-1800)

No man or woman could trade in the city of Canterbury without having obtained 'freedom' of the city, unless they paid an annual fee to do so. Admissions of freemen were recorded on the Chamberlains' Accounts of the city, which were prepared annually from Lady Day (25 March) to Lady Day until 1752, and thereafter each set runs from 1 January to 31 December. The accounts for 1392 are incomplete, but thereafter until 1800 there is a complete series except for the years 1455 to 1457 and the year 1552-3. Joseph Meadows Cowper, Honorary Librarian to the Corporation, produced this extract of the names from 1392 to 1800, and the volume was privately printed in 1903. There are five groups of freemen: those who obtained freedom after serving out an apprenticeship to a freeman; the children of freemen; those who married a freeman's daughter; those who claimed freedom by 'redemption', i. e. by purchase; and those who were honoured by a gift of the freedom from the Mayor and Court of Aldermen. Cowper published his lists divided into the five categories: the sample scan is from the list of those who obtained freedom by marriage. This is the index to those who gained their freedom by redemption.
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Tradesmen of Chester (1392-1805)

Lists of admissions of freemen of the city of Chester from the earliest surviving records to 1805 were compiled by J. H. E. Bennett and published by the Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society from 1906. These lists were extracted from the mayoral yearbooks (dating back to 1392) and twelve freemen's rolls covering 1538 to 1612 and 1636 to 1805; and a list of admissions for 1505-1506 in Harleian MS 2105 (British Library). The record does not become more or less continuous until about 1490: in all, 12,426 freedoms are recorded. Freedom of the city, necessary to practise a trade in the city, could be obtained by birth (in which case the father's name and occupation are usually given); by apprenticeship to a freeman (the master's name and occupation being given); or by order of assembly. Both the freemen and the masters listed are indexed here. The main abbreviations used are: B, freedom taken up by right of birth; I, freedom taken up by right of indenture; M. B., Mayor's Book; *, freedom granted by order of assembly.
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Burgesses of Preston, Lancashire, and other members of Preston guild merchant (1397-1682)

Freedom of the borough of Preston was necessary to trade in the town. The guild merchant maintained rolls of the burgesses, which were renewed every Preston guild, held every twenty years. The surviving rolls from 1397 to 1682 were edited by W. Alexander Abram, and published by the Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society in 1884 (volume ix). Each roll contains, firstly, a list of In-Burgesses, i. e., burgess inhabitants of the town, with the names of any adult sons eligible by way of inheritance to the freedom; then Foreign Burgesses (Burgenses Forinseci), i. e., those persons living outside the town who had acquired the freedom, plus the names of any adult sons; finally, there is a list of those who were not burgesses by inheritance, but had purchased freedom of the town. The only women to appear in these lists are three ladies in 1397, who were perhaps widows of burgesses. The text covers the rolls for the guilds merchant held in 1397 (20 Richard II: pages 1 to 7), 1415 (7 Henry V: 7-11), 1459 (37 Henry VI: 11-15), 1542 (34 Henry VIII: 15-19), 1562 (4 Elizabeth: 20-31), 1582 (24 Elizabeth: 31-46), 1602 (44 Elizabeth: 46-65), 1622 (20 James I: 65-94), 1642 (18 Charles I: 94-123), 1662 (14 Charles II: 123-159), and 1682 (34 Charles II: 160-202).
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Inhabitants of Aberdeen (1398-1570)

Extracts from the first 27 surviving volumes of Aberdeen burgh (borough) records were made by John Stuart for the Spalding Club and published in 1844. Although it is believed that the town records were preserved on parchment rolls until about 1380, and in book form thereafter, by 1591 the town clerk remarked that there existed of the earliest records only 'peces and partis of four ald imperfyt and informall buikis conumitt and eitten be mothes, for aldnes and antiquite euill to be red, yit to be keipit for a monument be resoun of the antiquite'. The regular series of books surviving comprised 61 folio volumes from 1398 to 1745, and these contained the proceedings of the Council of the Burgh, of the Baillie Court, and the Guild Court.
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Merchants and traders in Aberdeen (1399-1631)

A. M. Munro searched the council registers of the royal burgh of Aberdeen, and compiled this list of burgesses admited to the borough. The entries prior to 1591 were contained in lists engrossed in the council registers at the close of the minutes for the year ending at Michaelmas, but after that date in addition to the annual lists, which are continued, there is almost always a separate minute of admission under the respective dates. The records before 1591 are not only sparser, often with no more than a name, but are also lacking for 1401-1405, 1413-1432, 1434-1435, 1518-1519, 1557 and 1562-1564 - other blanks were filled in from the guildry accounts where such existed. Guild burgesses were allowed unfettered trading rights in Aberdeen; simple burgesses could only deal in Scottish wares (so being barred from the lucrative English and Flemish imports and exports); trade burgesses were limited to their own particular trades; and the council was able ex gratia to create honourary burgesses, who were accorded the full privileges of burgesses of guild and trade, and among whom numbered members of almost every family of note in Aberdeenshire. Burgesses could thus be created by descent, by apprenticeship into a trade, or ex gratia, and in the later portions of this roll the precise circumstances are usually given, sometimes also with the name of a cautioner or surety. Burgesses, masters and cautioners are all indexed here.
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Lawyers and officers of Lincoln's Inn (1422-1586)

Lincoln's Inn is one of the ancient inns of court in London exclusively invested with the right to call lawyers to the English bar. The Black Books of Lincoln's Inn are the main administrative records of the society, containing the names of those filling the different offices year by year; the annual accounts of the Pensioner and the Treasurer; regulations; punishments and fines for misdemeanours. This edition, printed for the Inn in 1897, covers the first five surviving volumes.
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Home family archives (1424-1671)

William Fraser of the Historical Manuscripts Commission examined the archives of the Earl of Home at Hirsel (near Coldstream in Berwickshire), and prepared this calendar, published in 1891.The most detailed account is of 'Documents, more or less of a Personal Nature relating to the Principal Members of the Family of Home' (pp. 87-107), and 'Old Charters and other Documents still in the Charter Chest at Hirsel, relating to Lands formerly possessed by the family' (107-170), with deeds relating to Auldcambus, Aldcathy, Arbirlot, Bedshiel, Bogend, Braidley, Brigham, Brighamshiels, Chirnside, Coldingham, Cowdenknowes, Crailing, Dalswinton, Derington, Dunglas, Eccles priory, Eltrive, Eskdale, Ewesdale, Fogo, Gordon, Greenlaw, Greenwood, Haddington, Harden, Hassington, Hassendean and Horsliehill, Hoscoat, Howlaws, Howpasley, Huntlywood, Jedburgh, Lambden, Lauder, Letham, Leyacres, Luchheild (in Fife), Mawdristoun (Manderston), Maw (in Fife), Mawes (in Perthshire), Mellerstain, East Nisbet, Samuelston, Smailholm, Sprouston, St Bothans (St Bathan), Swynset, Thornton, Tinneis (in Yarrow), and Upsetlington. Fraser was then allowed to inspect the family charters held by their law agent in Edinburgh in nine charter chests, and gives abstracts of the early items that he considered important. This volume also contains his calendar of some of the muniments of the Duke of Athole at Blair Castle, Blair Athole, concentrating on family correspondence from 1473 to 1721: this is also included in this index.
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Boys at Eton (1441-1698)

King Henry VI founded a college at Eton in Buckinghamshire in 1440, 'to the praise, glory and honour of the Crucified, the exaltation of the most glorious Virgin His mother, and the establishing of holy Church His bride'. From this foundation has evolved the modern public school. Sir Wasey Sterry compiled a register for the college from 1441 to 1698, from a variety of surviving records, and including groundwork from his 'A List of Eton Commensals' of 1904, and R. A. Austen-Leigh's 'A List of Eton Collegers' of 1905. This resulting 'Eton College Register' was published in 1943. Because of the variety of underlying materials, the entries vary greatly in depth: some names survive only as a surname of not too certain date. In the fullest entries, the surname (often with a variant spelling) is given first, in bold, followed by the years of entry and leaving. The christian name is given next; then birthplace, and name of father. The initials K. S. (King's Scholar) indicate a scholar on the foundation. There will then follow a summary of the man's career, death, burial and probate; and the sources for the information, in italics, at the end of the entry.
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Inhabitants of Salisbury (1443-1704)

A collection of transcripts of churchwardens' accounts from the parishes of St Edmund and St Thomas in Sarum (Salisbury in Wiltshire) by Henry James Fowle Swayne, the Recorder of Wilton, was published by the Wilts Record Society in 1896. The greater part of these accounts relate to expenditure to workmen on the church fabric, and income for rent of pews and the tolling of bells and obsequies for parishioners. There are several sources covered: the churchwardens' accounts for St Edmund's for 1443 to 1461; for St Thomas's 1545 to 1690, and some notes from 1704; and accounts of the stewards of the Fraternity of Jesus Mass founded in St Edmund's.
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Merchants and traders in Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1480-1770)

The society of Merchant Adventurers of Newcastle-upon-Tyne consisted of those who had obtained freedom of the city (allowing them to trade there) by birth as a son of, or apprenticeship, to a freeman: and within that, freedom of one of the three 'trades', i. e. boothman, draper or mercer. F. W. Dendy prepared extracts from the merchant adventurers' records, the first volume, published by the Surtees Society in 1895, containing extracts from the ordinances of the society through to 1894, the great majority being, however, from the 16th to 18th centuries. The Merchants' Company was founded with a series of enactments for their guidance and governance. But Dendy remarks that "Experience soon convinced them of the need of other laws, and these were framed from time to time. But during a very considerable period the members of the Society seem to have been influenced by a love of legislating, and their bye-laws increased to an unnecessary and perplexing extent." Indeed, many of the later ordinances amount to no more than minutes of particular orders aimed at particular people.
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London and Middlesex Feet of Fines (1485-1569)

Pedes Finium - law suits, or pretended suits, putting on record the ownership of land in London and Middlesex.
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Inhabitants of Cambridge (1504-1635)

Cambridge comprised fourteen ancient parishes, plus the university (which was extra-parochial), in the diocese of Ely. The church of St Mary the Great (as opposed to St Mary the Less) in the Market Place (juxta forum) has churchwardens' accounts surviving from 1504 onwards. Those from 1504 to 1635 were transcribed by J. E. Foster for the Cambridge Antiquarian Society and published in 1905. The two churchwardens were chosen annually: the previous year's churchwardens each chose another parishioner: those two then each chose three other parishioners: the resulting eight then chose the new year's churchwardens, the wardens of the Light of the Rood, and the wardens of the Mass of Jesus. Auditors were also chosen, usually out of the eight, to examine all the wardens' accounts at the end of the year. The churchwardens' accounts are largely concerned with the costs of repair of the church and its furnishings, and include the names of tradesmen and workmen. Each Easter a rate called Easter money was raised was raised from all householders in the parish, and additional rates are occasionally levied for unusual expenses, such as steeple reconstruction. These 'Easter book' lists give a complete list of householders for the parish, excepting the poor. The church's income also included the rents from some houses in the parish, and the names of the tenants appear. The offices of the Light of the Rood and the Mass of Jesus were abolished during the Reformation. The accounts of the Light of the Rood, i. e., for candles burnt before the crucifix, often include a list of sums received for funerary diriges (dirges) for the year, from which the year of death of the more prosperous parishioners can be traced in this early period.
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Citizens of Oxford (1509-1583)

These selections from the Oxford city records were printed in 1880 under the direction of the Town Clerk. Much of the material comes from the council minutes: 24 common councillors were elected out of the citizens at large each 30 September. Apart from the general administration of the city, a large number of cases involve people brought before the Council for using improper language, or other misbehaviour. There is an almost unbroken series of hanasters, or admissions to freedom of the city, listing the names of those who by purchase, birth or apprenticeship were admitted to the guild merchant.
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Anglo-Scottish relations (1509-1589)

The State Papers Relating to Scotland is the collection of English government documents dealing with relations with Scotland when the latter was still an independent country.
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Knaresborough testators, legatees and witnesses (1510-1606)

Knaresborough in the West Riding of Yorkshire lay in the ancient diocese of York, but was part of a large separate probate jurisdiction or peculiar encompassing the parishes of Burton Leonard, Farnham cum Scotton, Fewston, Great Ouseburn, Hampsthwaite, Knaresborough, South Stainley, Staveley, and some small adjoining areas. Grants of probate and administration, as well as copies of wills, were recorded on the Knaresborough court rolls. Dr Francis Collins prepared abstracts of all enrolled wills, grants of administration, and of tuition, from the 2nd year of the reign of king Henry VIII to the 3rd and 4th of James I, 'no matter how insignificant in life the testator may have been or how uninteresting the will', and these were published by the Surtees Society in 1902.
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Merchants and traders in Newcastle-upon-Tyne (1515-1898)

The society of Merchant Adventurers of Newcastle-upon-Tyne consisted of those who had obtained freedom of the city (allowing them to trade there) by birth as a son of, or apprenticeship, to a freeman: and within that, freedom of one of the three 'trades', i. e. boothman, draper or mercer. F. W. Dendy prepared extracts from the merchant adventurers' records, the second volume, published by the Surtees Society in 1899 containing extracts from the minute books relating to the history of the merchants' court, an account of the long-standing dispute between the Newcastle company and the London company, some extracts relating to the relations between the Newcastle company and the Eastland Company (who had a monopoly of the trade with Russia and the Baltic), copies of the oaths used by the Newcastle company, the London company and the Eastland Company, and (pages 185 to 381) a list of the apprentices enrolled in, and of the freemen admitted to, the Newcastle company. This list is arranged in a table of seven columns: Name of Apprentice; Name of Father of Apprentice and Observations (particularly, instances where an apprentice is passed over to a new master during his apprenticeship); Master; Boothman (B.), Draper (D.) or Mercer (M.); Date of Indentures: Enrolment: Admission. All the dates are normalised to New Style, i. e. to the modern calendar. Finally, there is a list of sons and apprentices of members who, having thus acquired the right of freedom of the city, took up the freedom, but did not assume the freedom of any of the three trades. The index covers all the contents of the volume, not just the apprentice and freemen lists.
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Harley Correspondence (1516-1774)

Part of the Portland collection of manuscripts was transferred to Longleat in Wiltshire after the marriage in 1759 of Thomas Thynne, late Marquis of Bath, with the eldest daughter of the 2nd Duke of Portland. These included the papers of her maternal grandfather, Edward Harley, 2nd Earl of Oxford. Mrs S. C. Lomas prepared this calendar for the Historical Manuscripts Commission, published in 1907. These letters had been chosen in an earlier age from the Harvey family correspondence, and bound in two volumes as 'Select Autograph Letters, &c., 1516 to the middle of the 18th century,' and from among these Mrs Lomas in turn chose hitherto unpublished material that seemed of historical interest.
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London Marriage Allegations (1521-1610)

London, Essex and part of Hertfordshire lay within the diocese of London. In the later 17th century the individual archdeaconry courts issued marriage licences, but for this period the only surviving material is from the overarching London Consistory court. The main series of marriage allegations from the consistory court starts 7 December 1597, and these were extracted by Colonel Joseph Lemuel Chester; Colonel Chester then discovered earlier material, back to 5 January 1521, in Vicar-General's Books of the Principal Probate Registry. The notices in these books were much briefer, but as well as extending back so much earlier, they included additional material for 1597 onwards. All this he collated with the consistory court extracts, and the text was edited by George J. Armytage and published by the Harleian Society in 1887. A typical later entry will give date; name, address and occupation of groom; name, address and condition of his intended bride, and/or, where she is a spinster, her father's name, address and occupation. Lastly we have the name of the church where the wedding was going to take place; or the words Gen. Lic. signifying a general or open licence.
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Hastings family correspondence (1528-1699)

John Harley of the Historical Manuscripts Commission was invited by Reginald Rawdon Hastings to examine his family's extensive archives at the Manor House, Ashby de la Zouche, in Leicestershire. Harley produced a detailed calendar, of which this is the second volume, published in 1930, Hastings himself having since died, and Harley having been killed at Gallipoli, the work being completed by his colleague, Francis Bickley. This volume covers four categories of the records: correspondence of the Hastings family 1528 to 1699; newsletters sent by professional reporters in London 1669 to 1693; papers relating to the Band of Gentlemen Pensioners, of which Theophilus 7th earl of Huntingdon was captaon, 1677 to 1685; and correspondence of the Rawdon family, 1641 to 1694, including papers of George Monck, afterwards Duke of Albemarle, when commanding in Ulster.
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Freemen of London (1540-1550)

The long series of mediaeval registers and books of admission of the freemen of London was destroyed by fire in 1786. Thirty surviving charred leaves were gathered together and rebound, becoming Egerton MS 2408 in the British Museum. The order is jumbled and generally speaking none can be dated with certainty, although all belong to the very end of the reign of Henry VIII and the start of the reign of his son, Edward VI. These are pages from the admission books. Each entry here usually gives the name of the person admitted to the freedom; his father's name, address and occupation; his entitlement to the freedom, usually by having served out an apprenticeship to a citizen, naming the master and his trade. Then there may follow a cross-reference to M. or N., being two volumes of another set of official books denoted by the letters of the alphabet, and following each other in chronological sequence, which evidently gave details of entries into apprenticeships. These other books no longer exist: but the dates given for entry do identify the start of the apprenticeship, and so give by implication a date for the eventual admission to freedom. In the margin is the name of the city ward and the total of the fee and fine paid on admission.
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Cecil Manuscripts (1540-1571)

Letters and papers of the Earl of Hertford and (1551-1571) sir William Cecil, Secretary of State. Also includes some miscellaneous material as early as 1306.
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Inhabitants of Ludlow in Shropshire (1540-1574)

The borough of Ludlow comprised a single ancient parish in the diocese of Hereford. The churchwardens' accounts from 1540 to 1574 were transcribed by Thomas Wright for the Camden Society and published in 1869. The two churchwardens were chosen annually: their accounts are largely concerned with the costs of repair of the church and its furnishings, and include the names of tradesmen and workmen. Wright looked through the remainder of the first surviving book of churchwardens' accounts, which extended to the end of the reign of queen Elizabeth, but found them largely repetitive, and chose to give just a few entries from them in an appendix, including the names of the churchwardens for each year.
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Scottish litigants, rebels and cautioners (1545-1569)

The Privy Council of Scotland exercised a superior judicial authority in the kingdom, and consequently received and dealt with a constant stream of petitions, as well as dealing with the internal security of the state. This register of the council from June 1545 to July 1569, in the reigns of Mary queen of Scots and king James VI, was edited by John Hill Burton, Historiographer Royal for Scotland, and published under the direction of the Lord Clerk Register of Scotland in 1877. Some of the individuals mentioned are the complainants, those of whom they complained, and the sureties on both sides: at this period, some of the complainants are alleging serious attacks, often of a feuding nature. Many of the bonds entered into by the cautioners are promises to keep the peace towards such enemies. Failure to answer to the council when summoned was a serious contempt, leading to being denounced a rebel, with serious consequences. But 'horning' was also used in the pursuit of debts: there was no imprisonment for debt in Scotland, but a creditor could have an obstinate debtor ordered, in the sovereign's name, to pay what was due, failing which, the debtor could be put to the horn, denounced as a rebel, and imprisoned as a rebel. In his preface to this volume, Burton remarked that "There might perhaps be objections to the abundance of names of persons and places unknown to fame; but it was considered that in such a work the proper names of all persons and places occurring in the Register should be preserved, to be at the service of genealogical as well as historical investigators".
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Boys entering Sedbergh School (1546-1550)

B. Wilson prepared this edition of the register of the Grammar School at Sedbergh in the West Riding of Yorkshire, published in 1895. Sedbergh school had three exhibitions at St John's College, Cambridge, and for the earliest years little more could be found about the pupils at the school than was recorded at St John's or other colleges. In 1700-1706 the first material from Sedbergh appears, but no more than lists of surnames. From 1746 onwards full names, or surnames and initials, are found for those boys who did not continue to university. It is only from 1820 onwards that the school register starts to give detail: month of entry, age, birthplace, and month of leaving. From then onwards Wilson was able to add more and more biographical detail, except, of course, for those boys in 1895 still at the school or with their careers yet ahead of them.
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Tenants, founders and incumbents of Lancashire chantries (1546-1554)

Chantries were established to perform services for the souls of their founders and other faithful dead, including annual obits and anniversaries at which alms were usually distributed. The chantries could be at an existing altar in a parish church, a new altar in a side chapel of an existing church, in a new chapel in the churchyard or some miles from an existing church: few were founded before 1300, and most date from 1450 to 1500. Hospitals were places provided by similar foundations to receive the poor and weak; there were also religious guilds, brotherhoods and fraternities, and colleges (like large chantries at which three or more secular priests lived in common). An Act of Parliament of 1545 gave king Henry VIII the power to dissolve such chantries, chapels, &c., the proceeds to be devoted to the expenses of the wars in France and Scotland. Commissioners were appointed 14 February 1546 to survey the chantries and seize their property, and from 1546 to 1548 the commissioners produced these certificates giving brief details of the establishment and nature of each foundation, with an inventory of valuables and rental of lands. The individuals named in the certificates are thus the founder, the present incumbent, and the tenants whose rents provided the chantry's income. All the surviving certificates for Lancashire were edited by the Reverend F. R. Raines for the Chetham Society, and published from 1862.
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Liegemen and Traitors, Pirates and Spies (1547-1550)

The Privy Council of Edward VI was responsible for internal security in England and Wales, and dealt with all manner of special and urgent matters
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Retired monks, nuns and chantry priests in the east Midlands (1547-1551)

Lists of pensions being paid to monks, nuns and chantry priests in the diocese of Lincoln after the dissolution of the monasteries and chantries. The diocese covered Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, part of Hertfordshire, Huntingdonshire, Leicestershire and Lincolnshire. Oxfordshire, Northamptonshire and Rutland, which had been shorn from the diocese, are not covered by these returns.
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Ambassadors, ministers, soldiers and spies (1547-1553)

The State Papers Foreign of king Edward VI consist mainly of letters and reports concerning England's relations with continental Europe, particularly the Netherlands and France. This calendar was edited by William B. Turnbull and published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls in 1861. The main text (to page 290) is abstracts of 710 letters from official correspondents abroad; but the remainder of the volume, entitled Calais Papers, deals with the English enclaves on the French coast.
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Inhabitants of Lancashire (1547-1558)

Pleadings and depositions in the Duchy Court of Lancaster from the 1st year of Edward VI to the 5th and 6th of Philip and Mary were edited by lieutenant-colonel Henry Fishwick for the Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society and published in 1899. The records include some long and detailed depositions about the precise facts of the cases: whereas plaintiffs and defendants were by and large from the landed gentry, deponents were often of much humbler stations in life, people who otherwise hardly appear in surviving records.
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Official Papers (1547-1580)

The State Papers Domestic cover all manner of business relating to England, Ireland and the colonies, conducted in the office of the Secretary of State as well as other miscellaneous records.
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Middlesex Sessions (1549-1603)

This printed calendar collates a number of surviving records from Middlesex sessions for the period. Principally these are the Gaol Delivery Rolls (G. D. R.) and the General Sessions of the Peace Rolls (G. S. O. P. R.). Both series cover general criminal indictments (bills) together with the recognizances of the witnesses to attend; but the Gaol Delivery Rolls, by their very nature, tend to deal with the more serious cases - felonies where the accused could not be released on bail. The General Sessions rolls also include the sheriff's lists of bailiffs, sub-bailiffs, high and petty constables in the shire; writs of venire facias for production of jurors, writs of capias, lists of jurors, jury-panels &c. The Gaol Delivery Rolls also include coroners' inquests, writs of supersedeas, and memoranda of proclamations. Special inquiries are recorded in separate Sessions of Oyer and Terminer (S. O. T.) rolls and Inquest or Inquisition rolls (I. R.) Although coverage is good, none of the sequences of rolls for this period is complete. A peculiarity of this calendar is that in the case of actual incidents, the date given at the start of each entry is the date that the incident was alleged to have taken place (for instance, 1 June 11 Elizabeth (1569) in the sample scan) rather than the date of the court proceedings.
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Liegemen and Traitors, Pirates and Spies (1550-1552)

The Privy Council of Edward VI was responsible for internal security in England and Wales, and dealt with all manner of special and urgent matters
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Bedfordshire charters (1550-1559)

Abstracts of charters and deeds in the Bodleian Library in Oxford; not only from the main sequences of charters, but also from volume lxxvi of the Dodsworth manuscripts there.
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Buckinghamshire Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a very general sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become standard until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Cambridgeshire Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a very general sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become standard until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Essex Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a very general sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become standard until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Hertfordshire Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a very general sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become standard until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Kent Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a very general sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become standard until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Lancashire Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a very general sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become standard until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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London Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a very general sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become standard until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Norfolk Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a rather loose sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become general until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Northumberland Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a rather loose sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become general until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Oxfordshire Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a rather loose sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become general until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Shropshire Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a rather loose sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become general until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Staffordshire Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a rather loose sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become general until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Suffolk Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a rather loose sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become general until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Sussex Charters (1550-1559)

A large accumulation of documents preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, formerly constituted the antiquarian collections of Anthony a Wood, Roger Dodsworth, Ralph Thoresby, Thomas Martin of Palgrave, Thomas Tanner bishop of St Asaph, Dr Richard Rawlinson, Richard Furney archdeacon of Surrey, and Richard Gough. A calendar of these was prepared by William H. Turner and published in 1878 under the title 'Calendar of Charters and Rolls preserved in the Bodleian Library'. The word 'charters' is here used in a rather loose sense, including virtually any manuscript or copy of a manuscript, but the bulk of the contents consists of mediaeval deeds of conveyance. Turner's calendar deals with each briefly, naming the principal parties and the nature of the deed, but hardly ever lists the witnesses. Many of these charters were undated (dating of deeds did not become general until around 1350) or so damaged or defective ('mutilated' is Turner's usual description) as no longer to display a legible date. However, he contrived, from the style of the script and/or the nature of the contents, to estimate dates in such cases. The sample scan is from the start of the Bedfordshire list.
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Boys entering Sedbergh School (1550-1560)

B. Wilson prepared this edition of the register of the Grammar School at Sedbergh in the West Riding of Yorkshire, published in 1895. Sedbergh school had three exhibitions at St John's College, Cambridge, and for the earliest years little more could be found about the pupils at the school than was recorded at St John's or other colleges. In 1700-1706 the first material from Sedbergh appears, but no more than lists of surnames. From 1746 onwards full names, or surnames and initials, are found for those boys who did not continue to university. It is only from 1820 onwards that the school register starts to give detail: month of entry, age, birthplace, and month of leaving. From then onwards Wilson was able to add more and more biographical detail, except, of course, for those boys in 1895 still at the school or with their careers yet ahead of them.
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London funerals and other news (1550-1563)

Henry Machyn was a citizen and merchant-taylor of London. He had a professional interest in the lavish funerals of his fellow citizens, and in October 1550 started a note book giving brief details of these occasions. Soon he added political news, and (in an age before newspapers) he had a journalist's eye for accidents, hangings, the preachings and suppression of heretics, and the fortunes and misfortunes of dissidents. He lived in interesting times; the early death of Edward VI; the failed attempt to install Jane on the throne; the succession of queen Mary, and a lurch towards Catholicism; her marriage to Philip of Spain; her death, and the accession of queen Elizabeth. Machyn's humble journal, written for his own amusement and with a resolute indifference to orthography, became in its time an important historical source, used by Strype, and then edited by John Gough Nichols for the Camden Society and published in 1848.
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Inhabitants of Reading in Berkshire (1550-1667)

The borough of Reading in Berkshire comprised three ancient parishes - St Giles, St Lawrence and St Mary. The churchwardens' accounts of Reading St Mary from 1550 to 1667 were transcribed by Francis N. A. Garry and A. G. Garry and published in 1893. The accounts, usually signed off by the two churchwardens and two surveyors of the highways for the year, listed the income and expenditure of the church. Income included annual payments for seats in the pews; rents from church property; fees for the use of the pall and for tolling the knell (knill) at funerals, and for opening graves; and sums received for 'gatherings', i. e. money gathered from communicants at Easter, Hocktide, Mayday, Hallowmas, Christmas and Whit. Expenditure was largely on maintaining the church fabric, and paying the minor officials - most of the names found on this side of the account are of local workmen busy with repairs.
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Churchwardens and other parishioners in Buckinghamshire (1552-1552)

In accordance with a royal commission of 16 May 1552, inventories were taken of the valuables held by individual parishes throughout England. These records survived in the Public Record Office, and were transcribed by the Reverend J. E. Brown, vicar of Studham, edited for the Alcuin Club by F. C. Eeles, and published in 1908. Some additional material from Additional MS 34,741 and Lansdowne MS 1045, in the British Museum, was incorporated. The people whose names appear in these records are mostly the churchwardens and those respectable parishioners to whose custody some of the valuables had been entrusted.
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Churchwardens of Bacton, Norfolk (1552-1552)

Dawson Turner prepared for the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society a transcript of inventories of church goods from nine parishes in the county in the 6th year of king Edward VI, and these were published in 1847. These were a sample of 759 such inventories from Norfolk, bound in six folio volumes, arranged by hundred, preserved in the Public Record Office. The nine churches chosen were: South Lynn All Saints, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Nicholas, 5 September 1552 King's Lynn St James, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Margaret, 17 September 1552 Irstead, 31 August 1552 Bacton, 31 August 1552 Barton Turf, 31 August 1552 Neatishead, 31 August 1552 Yarmouth (1552) The names that appear in these inventories are those of churchwardens and other parishioners, particularly those intrusted with the safe keeping of goods belonging to the church.
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Churchwardens and Parishioners of Barton Turf, Norfolk (1552-1552)

Dawson Turner prepared for the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society a transcript of inventories of church goods from nine parishes in the county in the 6th year of king Edward VI, and these were published in 1847. These were a sample of 759 such inventories from Norfolk, bound in six folio volumes, arranged by hundred, preserved in the Public Record Office. The nine churches chosen were: South Lynn All Saints, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Nicholas, 5 September 1552 King's Lynn St James, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Margaret, 17 September 1552 Irstead, 31 August 1552 Bacton, 31 August 1552 Barton Turf, 31 August 1552 Neatishead, 31 August 1552 Yarmouth (1552) The names that appear in these inventories are those of churchwardens and other parishioners, particularly those intrusted with the safe keeping of goods belonging to the church.
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Churchwardens of Irstead, Norfolk (1552-1552)

Dawson Turner prepared for the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society a transcript of inventories of church goods from nine parishes in the county in the 6th year of king Edward VI, and these were published in 1847. These were a sample of 759 such inventories from Norfolk, bound in six folio volumes, arranged by hundred, preserved in the Public Record Office. The nine churches chosen were: South Lynn All Saints, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Nicholas, 5 September 1552 King's Lynn St James, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Margaret, 17 September 1552 Irstead, 31 August 1552 Bacton, 31 August 1552 Barton Turf, 31 August 1552 Neatishead, 31 August 1552 Yarmouth (1552) The names that appear in these inventories are those of churchwardens and other parishioners, particularly those intrusted with the safe keeping of goods belonging to the church.
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Churchwarden and parishioners of King's Lynn St James (1552-1552)

Dawson Turner prepared for the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society a transcript of inventories of church goods from nine parishes in the county in the 6th year of king Edward VI, and these were published in 1847. These were a sample of 759 such inventories from Norfolk, bound in six folio volumes, arranged by hundred, preserved in the Public Record Office. The nine churches chosen were: South Lynn All Saints, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Nicholas, 5 September 1552 King's Lynn St James, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Margaret, 17 September 1552 Irstead, 31 August 1552 Bacton, 31 August 1552 Barton Turf, 31 August 1552 Neatishead, 31 August 1552 Yarmouth (1552) The names that appear in these inventories are those of churchwardens and other parishioners, particularly those intrusted with the safe keeping of goods belonging to the church.
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Parishioners of King's Lynn St Margaret (1552-1552)

Dawson Turner prepared for the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society a transcript of inventories of church goods from nine parishes in the county in the 6th year of king Edward VI, and these were published in 1847. These were a sample of 759 such inventories from Norfolk, bound in six folio volumes, arranged by hundred, preserved in the Public Record Office. The nine churches chosen were: South Lynn All Saints, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Nicholas, 5 September 1552 King's Lynn St James, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Margaret, 17 September 1552 Irstead, 31 August 1552 Bacton, 31 August 1552 Barton Turf, 31 August 1552 Neatishead, 31 August 1552 Yarmouth (1552) The names that appear in these inventories are those of churchwardens and other parishioners, particularly those intrusted with the safe keeping of goods belonging to the church.
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Parishioners of King's Lynn St Nicholas (1552-1552)

Dawson Turner prepared for the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society a transcript of inventories of church goods from nine parishes in the county in the 6th year of king Edward VI, and these were published in 1847. These were a sample of 759 such inventories from Norfolk, bound in six folio volumes, arranged by hundred, preserved in the Public Record Office. The nine churches chosen were: South Lynn All Saints, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Nicholas, 5 September 1552 King's Lynn St James, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Margaret, 17 September 1552 Irstead, 31 August 1552 Bacton, 31 August 1552 Barton Turf, 31 August 1552 Neatishead, 31 August 1552 Yarmouth (1552) The names that appear in these inventories are those of churchwardens and other parishioners, particularly those intrusted with the safe keeping of goods belonging to the church.
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Parishioners of Neatishead, Norfolk (1552-1552)

Dawson Turner prepared for the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society a transcript of inventories of church goods from nine parishes in the county in the 6th year of king Edward VI, and these were published in 1847. These were a sample of 759 such inventories from Norfolk, bound in six folio volumes, arranged by hundred, preserved in the Public Record Office. The nine churches chosen were: South Lynn All Saints, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Nicholas, 5 September 1552 King's Lynn St James, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Margaret, 17 September 1552 Irstead, 31 August 1552 Bacton, 31 August 1552 Barton Turf, 31 August 1552 Neatishead, 31 August 1552 Yarmouth (1552) The names that appear in these inventories are those of churchwardens and other parishioners, particularly those intrusted with the safe keeping of goods belonging to the church.
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Churchwardens and Parishioners of South Lynn All Saints, Norfolk (1552-1552)

Dawson Turner prepared for the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society a transcript of inventories of church goods from nine parishes in the county in the 6th year of king Edward VI, and these were published in 1847. These were a sample of 759 such inventories from Norfolk, bound in six folio volumes, arranged by hundred, preserved in the Public Record Office. The nine churches chosen were: South Lynn All Saints, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Nicholas, 5 September 1552 King's Lynn St James, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Margaret, 17 September 1552 Irstead, 31 August 1552 Bacton, 31 August 1552 Barton Turf, 31 August 1552 Neatishead, 31 August 1552 Yarmouth (1552) The names that appear in these inventories are those of churchwardens and other parishioners, particularly those intrusted with the safe keeping of goods belonging to the church.
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Churchwardens of Great Yarmouth (1552-1552)

Dawson Turner prepared for the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society a transcript of inventories of church goods from nine parishes in the county in the 6th year of king Edward VI, and these were published in 1847. These were a sample of 759 such inventories from Norfolk, bound in six folio volumes, arranged by hundred, preserved in the Public Record Office. The nine churches chosen were: South Lynn All Saints, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Nicholas, 5 September 1552 King's Lynn St James, 6 September 1552 King's Lynn St Margaret, 17 September 1552 Irstead, 31 August 1552 Bacton, 31 August 1552 Barton Turf, 31 August 1552 Neatishead, 31 August 1552 Yarmouth (1552) The names that appear in these inventories are those of churchwardens and other parishioners, particularly those intrusted with the safe keeping of goods belonging to the church.
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Ludlow Guild: Herefordshire Tenants (1552-1552)

The Fraternity or Guild of Palmers, founded in Ludlow, Shropshire, possessed extensive property in Ludlow itself and nearby. This survey, taken in the 6th year of king Edward VI, surviving in the records of the Court of Augmentations, lists the tenants of property in Ludlow and its liberties; those of the burgages in Ludlow; of 'divers tenements or burgages, greatly in ruins' with a nominal value of 2 11s 8d per annum, but 'totally in decay', worth 3s 4d for the soil; the sock rents; and various tenements in Ludlow and elsewhere in Shropshire; in Herefordshire; and in Worcestershire.
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Ludlow Guild: Tenants of Ludlow Burgages (1552-1552)

The Fraternity or Guild of Palmers, founded in Ludlow, Shropshire, possessed extensive property in Ludlow itself and nearby. This survey, taken in the 6th year of king Edward VI, surviving in the records of the Court of Augmentations, lists the tenants of property in Ludlow and its liberties; those of the burgages in Ludlow; of 'divers tenements or burgages, greatly in ruins' with a nominal value of 2 11s 8d per annum, but 'totally in decay', worth 3s 4d for the soil; the sock rents; and various tenements in Ludlow and elsewhere in Shropshire; in Herefordshire; and in Worcestershire.
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Ludlow Guild: Tenants in Ludlow (1552-1552)

The Fraternity or Guild of Palmers, founded in Ludlow, Shropshire, possessed extensive property in Ludlow itself and nearby. This survey, taken in the 6th year of king Edward VI, surviving in the records of the Court of Augmentations, lists the tenants of property in Ludlow and its liberties; those of the burgages in Ludlow; of 'divers tenements or burgages, greatly in ruins' with a nominal value of 2 11s 8d per annum, but 'totally in decay', worth 3s 4d for the soil; the sock rents; and various tenements in Ludlow and elsewhere in Shropshire; in Herefordshire; and in Worcestershire.
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Ludlow Guild: Tenants of Ruins (1552-1552)

The Fraternity or Guild of Palmers, founded in Ludlow, Shropshire, possessed extensive property in Ludlow itself and nearby. This survey, taken in the 6th year of king Edward VI, surviving in the records of the Court of Augmentations, lists the tenants of property in Ludlow and its liberties; those of the burgages in Ludlow; of 'divers tenements or burgages, greatly in ruins' with a nominal value of 2 11s 8d per annum, but 'totally in decay', worth 3s 4d for the soil; the sock rents; and various tenements in Ludlow and elsewhere in Shropshire; in Herefordshire; and in Worcestershire.
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Ludlow Guild: Tenants in Shropshire (1552-1552)

The Fraternity or Guild of Palmers, founded in Ludlow, Shropshire, possessed extensive property in Ludlow itself and nearby. This survey, taken in the 6th year of king Edward VI, surviving in the records of the Court of Augmentations, lists the tenants of property in Ludlow and its liberties; those of the burgages in Ludlow; of 'divers tenements or burgages, greatly in ruins' with a nominal value of 2 11s 8d per annum, but 'totally in decay', worth 3s 4d for the soil; the sock rents; and various tenements in Ludlow and elsewhere in Shropshire; in Herefordshire; and in Worcestershire.
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Ludlow Guild: Tenants of Sock Rents (1552-1552)

The Fraternity or Guild of Palmers, founded in Ludlow, Shropshire, possessed extensive property in Ludlow itself and nearby. This survey, taken in the 6th year of king Edward VI, surviving in the records of the Court of Augmentations, lists the tenants of property in Ludlow and its liberties; those of the burgages in Ludlow; of 'divers tenements or burgages, greatly in ruins' with a nominal value of 2 11s 8d per annum, but 'totally in decay', worth 3s 4d for the soil; the sock rents; and various tenements in Ludlow and elsewhere in Shropshire; in Herefordshire; and in Worcestershire.
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Ludlow Guild: Tenants in Worcestershire (1552-1552)

The Fraternity or Guild of Palmers, founded in Ludlow, Shropshire, possessed extensive property in Ludlow itself and nearby. This survey, taken in the 6th year of king Edward VI, surviving in the records of the Court of Augmentations, lists the tenants of property in Ludlow and its liberties; those of the burgages in Ludlow; of 'divers tenements or burgages, greatly in ruins' with a nominal value of 2 11s 8d per annum, but 'totally in decay', worth 3s 4d for the soil; the sock rents; and various tenements in Ludlow and elsewhere in Shropshire; in Herefordshire; and in Worcestershire.
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Liegemen and Traitors, Pirates and Spies (1552-1554)

The Privy Council of Edward VI and queen Mary was responsible for internal security in England and Wales, and dealt with all manner of special and urgent matters
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Officers of the Royal Household (1553-1553)

King Edward VI died 6 July 1553 and was buried 8 August following. The accounts of the funeral expenses were prepared by sir Edward Waldegrave, knight, one of queen Mary's privy coucil, and master of her Majesty's great wardrobe. The expenses included the purchase of 'blacke clothe boughte for the buriall' to furnish mourning for every officer and servant of the late king's household, and these accounts list all the officers, department by department, by name. Most officers were provided with 4 yards of cloth, and their clerks and servants 3 yards each: greater dignitaries were allowed from 7 to 16 yards; sir Edward himself received 10. The total cost of the 9,376 and a half yards of cloth was 5946 9s 9d.
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Liegemen and Traitors, Pirates and Spies (1554-1556)

The Privy Council of queen Mary was responsible for internal security in England and Wales, and dealt with all manner of special and urgent matters.
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Liegemen and Traitors, Pirates and Spies (1556-1558)

The Privy Council of king Philip and queen Mary was responsible for internal security in England and Wales, and dealt with all manner of special and urgent matters
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Norwich Caliver Men (1557-1557)

In 1846 the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society printed Extracts from Original Manuscripts belonging to the Norwich Corporation: including a muster taken before the Mayor of Norwich, for furnishing 80 shot of calivers to be trained in the city of Norwich, 8 April 1557: with a list of men appointed to find calivers and men appointed to serve with calivers in Middle Wymer.
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Norwich Muster Roll (1558-1558)

In 1846 the Norfolk and Norwich Archaeological Society printed Extracts from Original Manuscripts belonging to the Norwich Corporation: including this extract from a list (without date, but about 1558), of nearly 500 persons, in various wards and parishes throughout the city of Norwich, with the armour and weapons placed against each name.
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Common Pleas: Bedfordshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Berkshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Buckinghamshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Cambridgeshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Cornwall (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Coventry (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Devon (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Essex (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Gloucestershire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Gloucester (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Hampshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Herefordshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Hertfordshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Kent (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Lincolnshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: London (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant: however, London was used for many cases involving defendants in the provinces. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Middlesex (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Monmouthshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Norfolk (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Northamptonshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Norwich (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Nottinghamshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Rutland (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Shropshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Southampton (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Staffordshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Suffolk (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Surrey (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Common Pleas: Sussex (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Warwickshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Wiltshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Worcestershire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Common Pleas: Yorkshire (1558-1558)

Pleas at Westminster Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558. The court dealt with civil cases: debt, detinue, slander, assault, theft, breach of covenant, formedon, novel disseisin, &c. Each case is marked in the margin with the name of the county to the sheriff of which the writs were issued. Most often, but not necessarily, this would be the county of residence of the defendant. This calendar of the original formulaic record in abbreviated Latin on parchment has been made by David Bethell, preserving all individual detail from each case. The Latin text is translated: English phrases and passages are preserved literatim, in bold. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
>> Search this source

Fines: Bedfordshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100
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Fines: Buckinghamshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
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Fines: Cambridgeshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
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Fines: Cornwall (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
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Fines: Cumberland (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
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Fines: Derbyshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
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Fines: Devon (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
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Fines: Dorset (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
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Fines: Essex (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Gloucestershire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Gloucester (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
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Fines: Herefordshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Hertfordshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
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Fines: Kingston upon Hull (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Huntingdonshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Kent (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Leicestershire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Lincolnshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Middlesex (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Monmouthshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Norfolk (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Northamptonshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Northumberland (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Norwich (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Nottinghamshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Newcastle upon Tyne (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Oxfordshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Shropshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Somerset (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Staffordshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Suffolk (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Sussex (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Warwickshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Wiltshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: York (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
>> Search this source

Fines: Yorkshire (1558-1558)

Fines for fictitious actions of covenant in the Common Pleas were a way of registering the transfer of landed property. The originals, entered on the Common Roll for Michaelmas term, 5 & 6 Philip & Mary and 1 Elizabeth, 1558 are here abstracted into English by David Bethell: the grantee is in each case the person named in the third line, covenanting with the grantor(s). The description of the estate names the number of messuages (houses), acres of (arable) land, pasture, meadow, &c. CP 40/1176 mm.1-100.
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Liegemen and Traitors, Pirates and Spies (1558-1570)

The Privy Council of queen Elizabeth was responsible for internal security in England and Wales, and dealt with all manner of special and urgent matters
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Kent clergy (1559-1560)

Ordinations of deacons, priests and lectors, for the diocese and jurisdiction of Canterbury, recorded in the register of archbishop Matthew Parker.
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Tradesmen of York (1559-1759)

No man or woman could trade in the city of York without having obtained 'freedom' of the city. Their names were recorded on the 'Freemen's Roll', or Register of the Freemen of the City of York, which contains about 16,600 names for this period. A list of names was prepared for each year. Each annual list starts with the name of the mayor and the camerarii or chamberlains. The chamberlains were freemen charged with the duty of receiving the fees of the new freemen; of seeing that only freemen traded in the city; and of preparing this roll, which was compiled from the names on their own account books from the receipts for the fees. There are three groups of freemen: those who obtained freedom after serving out an apprenticeship to a freeman; the children of freemen (per patres); and a handful who claimed freedom by 'redemption', i. e. by purchase or gift from the Mayor and Court of Aldermen.
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