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National ArchivesSailors and marines on H. M. S. Bellerophon in the Crimean War (1854-1856)
Sebastopol in the Crimea was the great Russian naval arsenal on the Black Sea. A combined assault by British, French and Turkish troops resulted in the reduction of Sebastopol and led to the Treaty of Paris of 27 April 1856, guaranteeing the independence of the Ottoman Empire. By Admiralty Order the Crimea Medal was awarded to sailors and marines present during the campaign, between 17 September 1854 (the first landing at Eupatoria) and 9 September 1855 (when the allies secured Sebastopol). The sailors' medals were mostly delivered to them on board ship in the course of 1856; the marines' medals were sent to their respective headquarters for distribution. The remarks as to distribution in this medal roll therefore give more specific information as to the whereabouts of the sailor recipients in 1856 than about the marines. Her Majesty's Ship Bellerophon, a 78-gun sailing ship, took part in the assault. Four clasps to this medal were awarded to the men present in the actions at Sebastopol itself, Inkerman, Balaklave (Balaclava) and (the sea of) Azoff, but the recipients of these clasps are recorded on separate rolls, not part of this index, but indexed on this site.
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Sailors and marines on H. M. S. Bellerophon in the Crimean War
 (1854-1856)
National ArchivesSailors and marines on H. M. S. Royal Albert in the Crimean War (1854-1856)
Sebastopol in the Crimea was the great Russian naval arsenal on the Black Sea. A combined assault by British, French and Turkish troops resulted in the reduction of Sebastopol and led to the Treaty of Paris of 27 April 1856, guaranteeing the independence of the Ottoman Empire. By Admiralty Order the Crimea Medal was awarded to sailors and marines present during the campaign, between 17 September 1854 (the first landing at Eupatoria) and 9 September 1855 (when the allies secured Sebastopol). The sailors' medals were mostly delivered to them on board ship in the course of 1856; the marines' medals were sent to their respective headquarters for distribution. The remarks as to distribution in this medal roll therefore give more specific information as to the whereabouts of the sailor recipients in 1856 than about the marines. Her Majesty's Ship Royal Albert, a 120-gun screw steamer, took part in the assault. Four clasps to this medal were awarded to the men present in the actions at Sebastopol itself, Inkerman, Balaklave (Balaclava) and (the sea of) Azoff, but the recipients of these clasps are recorded on separate rolls, not part of this index, but indexed on this site. This index also covers the Royal Albert's two tenders, the Clinker and the Grinder.
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Sailors and marines on H. M. S. Royal Albert in the Crimean War
 (1854-1856)
Gentry in London (1856)
The Post Office London Directory for 1856 includes this 'Court Directory', listing alphabetically by surname and christian name the upper class residents of the capital with their postal addresses. 'In order to afford space for the addresses, the abbreviation "esq." for esquire has no longer been appended to each name in the Court Directory. It should be understood that such should be added to the name of every gentleman in the following pages to which no inconsistent addition is affixed.' Decorations, honours &c. are generally given. Some gentlemen appear who are also listed (as professional men, &c.) in the commercial section. Those with second residences in the provinces usually have the country address given as well.
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Gentry in London
 (1856)
Irish Bankrupts (1856)
Bankruptcy notices for Ireland: bankruptcy often caused people to restart their lives elsewhere, so these are an important source for lost links
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Irish Bankrupts
 (1856)
Traders and professionals in London (1856)
The Post Office London Directory for 1856 includes this 'Commercial and Professional Directory', recording over 100,000 individuals.
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Traders and professionals in London
 (1856)
National ArchivesLondon Policemen (1843-1857)
The Metropolitan Police Register of Joiners (MEPO 4/334) lists policemen joining the force 1 January 1843 to 1 April 1857 (warrant numbers 19893 to 35804). The register is alphabetical, in so far as the recruits are listed chronologically grouped under first letter of surname. It gives Date of Appointment, Name, Number of Warrant, Cause of Removal from Force (resigned, dismissed, promoted or died), and Date of Removal. Although the register was closed for new entrants at the end of 1842, the details of removals were always recorded, some being twenty or more years later. Those recruits not formerly in the police, the army, or some government department, were required to provide (normally) at least two letters of recommendation from persons of standing, and details of these are entered on the facing pages: the names in these are indexed separately - this index refers only to the police constables. Where a recruit was only recently arrived in the metropolis, the names and addresses of the recommenders can be invaluable for tracing where he came from.
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London Policemen
 (1843-1857)
National ArchivesPersons of standing recommending London police recruits (1843-1857)
The Metropolitan Police Register of Joiners (MEPO 4/334) lists policemen joining the force 1 January 1843 to 1 April 1857 (warrant numbers 19893 to 35804). The register is alphabetical, in so far as the recruits are listed chronologically grouped under first letter of surname. It gives Date of Appointment, Name, Number of Warrant, Cause of Removal from Force (resigned, dismissed, promoted or died), and Date of Removal. Although the register was closed for new entrants at the end of 1842, the details of removals were always recorded, some being twenty or more years later. Those recruits not formerly in the police, the army, or some government department, were required to provide (normally) at least two letters of recommendation from persons of standing, and details of these are entered on the facing pages. Where a recruit was only recently arrived in the metropolis, the names and addresses of the recommenders can be invaluable for tracing where he came from. Those recruits not formerly in the police, the army, or some government department, were required to provide (normally) at least two letters of recommendation from persons of standing, and details of these are entered on the facing pages: the names in these are indexed here (the police recruits are indexed separately and not included here). Recruits transferred from other forces or rejoining the force did not normally need recommendations - in the latter case, former warrant numbers are given - but some recommendations are from police inspectors, even other constables. Recruits coming from the army sometimes have general military certificates of good conduct, but most often have a letter from their former commanding officer; recruits recommended by government departments (most often the Home Office) similarly have letters from the head of department. But the great majority of the names and addresses in these pages are of respectable citizens having some sort of personal acquaintance with the recruit. Where more than two recommendations were provided, the clerk would only record one or two, with the words 'and others'. Tradesmen are sometimes identified as such by their occupations; there are some gentry. Although the bulk of these names are from London and the home counties, a scattering are from further afield throughout Britain and Ireland.
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Persons of standing recommending London police recruits
 (1843-1857)
National ArchivesSailors and marines awarded the Baltic Medal (1854-1857)
During the Crimean War, a British and French fleet entered the Baltic, and captured Bomarsund harbour and one of the Aland Islands (now part of Finland). Bomarsund is the sound between the islands and the Swedish island of Vardo; and at the fine harbour on Bomarsund, dominating the entrance of the Gulf of Bothnia, and indirectly that of the Gulf of Finland, the Russians had constructed a northern naval base, and this was destroyed in the attack. The British fleet taking part in the Baltic expedition comprised Her Majesty's ships Aeolus, Ajax, Alban, Algiers, Amphion, Archer, Arrogant, Basilisk, Belleisle, Blenheim, Boscawen, Bulldog, Caesar, Calcutta, Centaur, Colossus, Conflict, Cornwallis, Cossack, Cressy, Cruizer, Cuckoo, Cumberland, Dauntless, Desperate, Dragon, Driver, Duke of Wellington, Edinburgh, Esk, Euryalus, Exmouth, Falcon, Firefly, Geyser, Gladiator, Gorgon, Hannibal, Harrier, Hastings, Hawke, Hecla, Hogue, Imperieuse, James Watt, Leopard, Lightning, Locust, Magicienne, Majestic, Merlin, Miranda, Monarch, Neptune, Nile, Odin, Orion, Otter, Pembroke, Penelope, Pigmy, Porcupine, Prince Regent, Princess Royal, Pylades, Resistance, Retribution, Rhadamanthus, Rosamond, Royal George, Royal William, Russell, St George, St Jean D'Acre, St Vincent, Sphinx, Stromboli, Tartar, Termagant, Tribune, Tyne, Valorous, Volage, Volcano, Vulture, Wrangler and Zephyr. This is the medal roll of the naval and marine claimants who qualified for the Baltic Medal for service in 1854 to 1855. The medals were dispatched in batches from early 1857, the first batch being numbered B A 1, the next B A 2, &c.; then follows the destination (a place or, more usually, a ship) and the date of dispatch. Most of the medals had been sent by the end of 1857.
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Sailors and marines awarded the Baltic Medal 
 (1854-1857)
Bankrupts (1857)
Bankruptcy notices for England and Wales: bankruptcy often caused people to restart their lives elsewhere, so these are an important source for lost links
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Bankrupts
 (1857)
Deaths, Marriages, News and Promotions (1857)
Death notices and obituaries, marriage and birth notices, civil and military promotions, clerical preferments and domestic occurrences, as reported in the Gentleman's Magazine. Mostly from England and Wales, but items from Ireland, Scotland and abroad. July to December 1857
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Deaths, Marriages, News and Promotions
 (1857)
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