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National ArchivesSailors and marines on H. M. S. St Jean D'Acre in the Crimean War (1854-1856)
Sebastopol in the Crimea was the great Russian naval arsenal on the Black Sea. A combined assault by British, French and Turkish troops resulted in the reduction of Sebastopol and led to the Treaty of Paris of 27 April 1856, guaranteeing the independence of the Ottoman Empire. By Admiralty Order the Crimea Medal was awarded to sailors and marines present during the campaign, between 17 September 1854 (the first landing at Eupatoria) and 9 September 1855 (when the allies secured Sebastopol). The sailors' medals were mostly delivered to them on board ship in the course of 1856; the marines' medals were sent to their respective headquarters for distribution. The remarks as to distribution in this medal roll therefore give more specific information as to the whereabouts of the sailor recipients in 1856 than about the marines. Her Majesty's Ship St Jean D'Acre, a 101-gun screw steamer, took part in the assault. Four clasps to this medal were awarded to the men present in the actions at Sebastopol itself, Inkerman, Balaklave (Balaclava) and (the sea of) Azoff, but the recipients of these clasps are recorded on separate rolls, not part of this index, but indexed on this site.
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Sailors and marines on H. M. S. St Jean D'Acre in the Crimean War
 (1854-1856)
Gentry in London (1856)
The Post Office London Directory for 1856 includes this 'Court Directory', listing alphabetically by surname and christian name the upper class residents of the capital with their postal addresses. 'In order to afford space for the addresses, the abbreviation "esq." for esquire has no longer been appended to each name in the Court Directory. It should be understood that such should be added to the name of every gentleman in the following pages to which no inconsistent addition is affixed.' Decorations, honours &c. are generally given. Some gentlemen appear who are also listed (as professional men, &c.) in the commercial section. Those with second residences in the provinces usually have the country address given as well.
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Gentry in London
 (1856)
Traders and professionals in London (1856)
The Post Office London Directory for 1856 includes this 'Commercial and Professional Directory', recording over 100,000 individuals.
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Traders and professionals in London
 (1856)
National ArchivesLondon Policemen (1843-1857)
The Metropolitan Police Register of Joiners (MEPO 4/334) lists policemen joining the force 1 January 1843 to 1 April 1857 (warrant numbers 19893 to 35804). The register is alphabetical, in so far as the recruits are listed chronologically grouped under first letter of surname. It gives Date of Appointment, Name, Number of Warrant, Cause of Removal from Force (resigned, dismissed, promoted or died), and Date of Removal. Although the register was closed for new entrants at the end of 1842, the details of removals were always recorded, some being twenty or more years later. Those recruits not formerly in the police, the army, or some government department, were required to provide (normally) at least two letters of recommendation from persons of standing, and details of these are entered on the facing pages: the names in these are indexed separately - this index refers only to the police constables. Where a recruit was only recently arrived in the metropolis, the names and addresses of the recommenders can be invaluable for tracing where he came from.
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London Policemen
 (1843-1857)
National ArchivesSailors and marines awarded the Baltic Medal (1854-1857)
During the Crimean War, a British and French fleet entered the Baltic, and captured Bomarsund harbour and one of the Aland Islands (now part of Finland). Bomarsund is the sound between the islands and the Swedish island of Vardo; and at the fine harbour on Bomarsund, dominating the entrance of the Gulf of Bothnia, and indirectly that of the Gulf of Finland, the Russians had constructed a northern naval base, and this was destroyed in the attack. The British fleet taking part in the Baltic expedition comprised Her Majesty's ships Aeolus, Ajax, Alban, Algiers, Amphion, Archer, Arrogant, Basilisk, Belleisle, Blenheim, Boscawen, Bulldog, Caesar, Calcutta, Centaur, Colossus, Conflict, Cornwallis, Cossack, Cressy, Cruizer, Cuckoo, Cumberland, Dauntless, Desperate, Dragon, Driver, Duke of Wellington, Edinburgh, Esk, Euryalus, Exmouth, Falcon, Firefly, Geyser, Gladiator, Gorgon, Hannibal, Harrier, Hastings, Hawke, Hecla, Hogue, Imperieuse, James Watt, Leopard, Lightning, Locust, Magicienne, Majestic, Merlin, Miranda, Monarch, Neptune, Nile, Odin, Orion, Otter, Pembroke, Penelope, Pigmy, Porcupine, Prince Regent, Princess Royal, Pylades, Resistance, Retribution, Rhadamanthus, Rosamond, Royal George, Royal William, Russell, St George, St Jean D'Acre, St Vincent, Sphinx, Stromboli, Tartar, Termagant, Tribune, Tyne, Valorous, Volage, Volcano, Vulture, Wrangler and Zephyr. This is the medal roll of the naval and marine claimants who qualified for the Baltic Medal for service in 1854 to 1855. The medals were dispatched in batches from early 1857, the first batch being numbered B A 1, the next B A 2, &c.; then follows the destination (a place or, more usually, a ship) and the date of dispatch. Most of the medals had been sent by the end of 1857.
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Sailors and marines awarded the Baltic Medal 
 (1854-1857)
Masters and Mates of Merchantmen: Certificates of Competency (1857)
The Mercantile Navy List and Annual Appendage to the Commercial Code of Signals for All Nations, edited by J. H. Brown, was published By Authority in 1857. It includes this full list of 'Masters and Mates who have passed their examination and obtained Certificates of Competency', from number 1 to number 15816, except for those whose certificates had been cancelled. The first column gives the number of certificate; the second column full name, surname first (an asterisk before the name denotes those who are found qualified to act in fore and aft-rigged vessels only; two vertical lines denotes in North Wales fishery only; a double dagger, passed the examination in steam; and a dagger refers to honorary testimonials, details of which are printed at the end of the section. A B C D are the distinguishing letters for the four classes of Meteorological Observers); third column, class examined (1 ex, 1, 2 and 3 denote First Extra, First, Second and Third Class Master's Certificate, granted under the Voluntary Examination, by Order in Council dated August 1845; Ex C, Master Extra; O C, Master Ordinary; 1 M, First Mate; O M, Only Mate; 2 M, Second Mate; L. R. N., Lieutenant Royal Navy; M. R. N., Master Royal Navy; E. I. C., East India Company; M. I. N., Master Indian Navy.); fourth column, year of certificate (where there are two dots, this is to represent a 'ditto' to the year next above); fifth column, Examining Board (Aberdeen, Belfast, Bristol, Cork, Dublin, Dundee, Glasgow, Greenock, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London, Newcastle, Plymouth, Shields or Sunderland).
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Masters and Mates of Merchantmen: Certificates of Competency
 (1857)
Petitioning Creditors and Solicitors (1857)
Principal creditors petitioning to force a bankruptcy (but often close relatives of the bankrupt helping to protect his assets): and solicitors
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Petitioning Creditors and Solicitors
 (1857)
Voters for Godmanchester (1857)
A poll for the election of two knights of the shire to represent the county of Huntingdon took place 2 April 1857: the candidates were James Rust (1192 votes), Edward Fellowes (1106) and John Moyer Heathcote (1106). This poll book lists those electors who voted, described as 'freeholders', although the county franchise included not only male freeholders of 40s a year, but also 10 copyholders and long-leaseholders, and 50 short-leaseholders and tenants. The names are arranged by parish or township, and the residence of each voter is given. Many of these freeholders did not live in the place from which they acquired the right to vote. The right-hand column indicates how they voted.
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Voters for Godmanchester
 (1857)
Voters for Huntingdon St Benedict (1857)
A poll for the election of two knights of the shire to represent the county of Huntingdon took place 2 April 1857: the candidates were James Rust (1192 votes), Edward Fellowes (1106) and John Moyer Heathcote (1106). This poll book lists those electors who voted, described as 'freeholders', although the county franchise included not only male freeholders of 40s a year, but also 10 copyholders and long-leaseholders, and 50 short-leaseholders and tenants. The names are arranged by parish or township, and the residence of each voter is given. Many of these freeholders did not live in the place from which they acquired the right to vote. The right-hand column indicates how they voted.
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Voters for Huntingdon St Benedict
 (1857)
Insolvents in England and Wales (1858)
Perry's Bankrupt and Insolvent Gazette, issued monthly, included lists of insolvencies and stages in the process whereby the insolvents petitioned for release from debtors' prison. The insolvent is generally referred to by name (surname first), address and trade. This is the index to the names of the insolvents, from the issues from January to December 1858.
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Insolvents in England and Wales
 (1858)
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