Avitabile Surname Ancestry Results
Our indexes 1000-1999 include entries for the spelling 'avitabile'. In the period you have requested, we have the following 1 record (displaying 1 to 1):
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|British Army officers in the annexation of the Punjab
By 1845 the Sikh state of Lahore was the remaining substantial military power in the Indian sub-continent outside British rule. Its khalsa army was well equipped, disciplined, tenacious and had three European officers among its commanders. The sikhs controlled not only the Punjab, but Pathan tribes as far as the border with Afghanistan, and the whole of Kashmir. The river Sutlej formed the boundary between the Sikh state and British India. In early December 1845 the Sikh army crossed the Sutlej and invested the British garrisons at Ferozepore; 13 December 1845 the British declared war. After defeat in a series of battles, at Moodkee (18-21 December), Ferozeshah (21-22 December); Budhowal and Aliwal (23 December, 28 January); and Sobraon (10 February 1846), the state of Lahore submitted to the Treaty of Lahore, ceding the Punjab between the Sutlej and the Beas, Kashmir, and paying half a crore of rupees. The state of Lahore itself continued under the durbar as a British protectorate during the minority of the young maharajah; and the Sikh army was put under British command. Kashmir was sold by the British to the ruler of Jammu for a crore, and the submission of Kashmir to Jammu was effected by a Sikh force under British officers. British garrisons were placed in the Punjab, but the fort at Multan refused to submit, and had to be besieged. During the siege a Sikh regiment defected to join other khalsa remnants, in defiance of the durbar at Lahore, and raised a rebellion (August 1848 to January 1849). Battles at Chillianwalla (13 January 1849) and Gujerat (21 February 1849) destroyed the Sikh army. The British then annexed the whole of the Punjab, incorporating it into British India. This account of the Annexation of Punjab by Arthur D. Innes and General Charles Gough was published in 1897, but with a poor index; we have remedied that. The account also includes a description of the battles of Maharajapore and Puniar (29 December 1843) by which the army of Gwalior was destroyed.
AVITABILE. Cost: £6.00.
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